Baytril etc. (enrofloxacin) a fluoroquinolone antibiotic which is effective for both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Fluoroquinolone antibiotics, such as enrofloxacin, are very effective at treating specific bacterial infections, such as infections in the reproductive, respiratory and gastrointestinal systems. However, as there is increasing antibiotic resistance against this important group of medications, it is recommended that they only be used in cases where other antibiotics will not be effective (as determined by a bacterial culture and sensitivity test).
Baytril etc. (enrofloxacin) is available in oral tablets, capsules, creams and injectable solutions. Enrofloxacin should not be used for puppies / growing dogs as it can it can interfere with the growth of bone cartilage. Enrofloxacin should not be used for small breeds of dogs less than 8 months of age, large breeds of dogs less than 12 months of age, or giant breeds of dogs less than 18 months of age.
Here are some of the dog health conditions where Baytril etc. (enrofloxacin) is used.
If a superficial skin infection progresses to deeper layers then it's the time for systemic antibiotics, however Baytril (enrofloxacin) should be reserved for resistant or recurrent infections and not used as your first-choice antibiotic.
Baytril Otic (enrofloxacin/silver sulfadiazine) is marketed to treat external bacterial ear infections. Baytril Otic are syringes of topical antibiotic which are made to be inserted deep into the ear after a thorough cleaning. Baytril Otic-pack require one application by the veterinarian.
Baytril etc. (enrofloxacin) systemic is used to treat infections of the inner and middle ear, and has good efficacy on gram negative bacteria.
Baytril is usually well tolerated at normal doses and comes as a flavored tablet that some dogs will eat on their own. Otherwise it can be hidden in peanut butter, hot dogs, cheese, etc. It also comes in an injectable form for those dogs that can't be fooled with pills.
Kennel cough is usually relatively mild and self-limiting disease, antibiotic treatment is usually done with some first choice antibiotic like amoxicillin, 1st gen. cephalosporins etc.
In most cases, these will do the job, however, if the case turns out to be more severe, and these prove ineffective, "stronger" antibiotics may be required. In these cases bacterial sensitivity testing and treatment based on it is necessary.
Enrofloxacin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic which is very effective against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and Mycoplasma, one of the multiple causative agents of Kennel Cough. It is recommended for dogs that are suffering from Kennel Cough and have caught a secondary bacterial infection, and will minimize the probability of the dog dying from sepsis or other complications. While Baytril will not get rid of the Kennel Cough-causing viruses, it can help ward off other bacteria who might take advantage of an immune-compromised dog. The drawback is that Baytril cannot be given to dogs that have not fully matured as it can interfere with their development. Baytril also has a number of side effects which is why it is used sparingly and under careful supervision of a veterinarian.
Enrofloxacin is effective against bacteria which most commonly cause UTI (urinary tract infections, including pyelonephritis), and it achieves therapeutic levels in urine. However, it shouldn't be used routinely without bacterial sensitivity testing, except in severe cases when septicemia and other systemic problems develop, so immediate and strong antibiotic treatment can mean a difference between life and death. In some places, it's illegal to use fluoroquinolones without bacterial sensitivity testing (BST), so that's also a decisive factor. BST is cheap and best way to choose a proper treatment, my lab gets it done in about 24-48h so in most cases the dog can wait for the results while receiving some first-line antibiotic like Ampicillin or Amoxicillin until then.
Enrofloxacin and other fluoroquinolones are recommended for the treatment of severe cases of pneumonia when multiple antibacterial agents are necessary. It's usually combined with synthetic penicillins (amoxicillin or ampicillin) or cephalosporins (in severe cases usually 3rd gen) to broaden the antibacterial spectrum even more.
If other antibiotics fail, Baytril will often work in the urinary tract. Enrofloxacin is highly effective in treating very resistant or deep-seated gram-negative UTIs. However this type of infection usually has some predisposing cause that we should try to identify and treat. When a complicated case is brought to our practice we should also consider: inappropriate medication, dose, or duration, failure of owners to administer medication, or development of microbial resistance.