Species group: Water Dragons and Sailfin Lizards
Other common names: Asian Water Dragon; CWD; Thai Water Dragon; Green Water Dragon
Scientific name: Physignathus cocincinus
Much favored by Green Iguana fans who lack the space for a 6-foot-long lizard, the Chinese Water Dragon is among the best of all large lizard pets. They do need a good deal of space, however, and careful attention must be paid to their husbandry, but most keepers find that these impressive beauties are well-worth the efforts involved in their upkeep.
The Chinese Water Dragon’s range extends from southern China through Vietnam and Cambodia to Thailand. They are always found near water, frequenting river and canal edges, swamps, brushy, flooded fields and plantations, and similar habitats. Highly arboreal, startled individuals fall from overhanging branches into water or heavy cover to make their escape.
Appearance / health:
Superficially resembling scaled-down Green Iguanas, Chinese Water Dragons are among the most impressive of Southeast Asia’s lizards. Males, which sport huge heads, sharp claws, and a row of soft spines down the back and tail, may top 3 feet in length. Females have smaller heads and crests, and top out at 2 feet. The attractive light to dark green coloration varies with the ambient temperature. The throat, especially in mature males, may be tinged with pink, orange or yellow. Stripes, ranging from off-white to brown and green, decorate the tail and, to a lesser degree, the sides of the body.
With proper care, Water Dragons can reach 10-15 years of age. However, they are alert and high-strung, and will flee from noises, cats, and other threats. Injuries during such escape attempts are common, as they drop from branches when startled. Individuals housed in cramped quarters will run along the glass and are prone to snout and jaw abrasions and other injuries. Fine/gritty substrate may lodge along the gums and in the eyes of animals constantly seeking to escape their enclosure. Un-mated females and those kept without a suitable nest site often retain their eggs; unmated females should be spayed. Some Water Dragons in the trade are wild-caught and may be afflicted with various parasites. A veterinarian can run fecal tests and treat parasites.
Respiratory diseases can take hold if your pet is kept at sub-optimal temperatures, and intestinal blockages caused by ingested substrate are sometimes a concern. Metabolic bone disease is common in animals that are not provided with ample calcium and/or UVB exposure.
Behavior / temperament:
Water Dragons are ever-alert for danger, and even long-term pets are easily startled. They will resist being grabbed or otherwise restrained…best to allow the animal to walk onto a forearm or to treat as a “hands-off” pet. Water Dragons can inflict severe injuries with their teeth, tails, and nails; the mouth and tail should never be allowed near one’s face. Large Water Dragons are not suitable pets for children.
Water Dragons forage on the ground but are otherwise arboreal, and will be stressed if kept in enclosures that do not allow climbing opportunities. Youngsters may be raised in 30 gallon terrariums, while a single adult will need a home measuring approximately 6 x 4 x 5-6 feet (l x w x h). In suitable climates, predator-proof outdoor enclosures are ideal options. Numerous stout branches should be provided. Sturdy live plants (Pothos, Philodendron, Spider Plants) or artificial plants should be added. Water Dragons always live near heavy cover and will be ill-at-ease in bare terrariums. Never position rocks below braches, as startled Water Dragons may jump to the floor and be injured. A water bowl large enough for bathing must be provided.
The substrate should be capable of holding moisture and soft enough to cushion falls. Cypress mulch is ideal; avoid fine substrates such as peat and coconut husk, which tend to lodge around the eyes and jaws.
Water Dragons will not thrive without daily exposure to ample UVB. Mercury vapor bulbs broadcast UVB over greater distances than do florescent models, and also provide beneficial UVA. They require a temperature gradient of 82-88 F and a basking temperature of 95-100 F. Large enclosures will allow your pet to thermo-regulate by moving from hot to cooler areas. This behavior is important to long-term health, and is usually not possible in small cages. Humidity should be kept at 75-85%, but there must be dry basking areas available as well.
Males are territorial and will fight savagely. Females often co-exist, but may also battle for dominance.
Water Dragons need a varied diet. Crickets and mealworms alone, even if powdered with vitamin/mineral preparations, are not an adequate diet. Earthworms, roaches, locusts, crayfish, crickets, butterworms, silkworms, and other commercially-available invertebrates should be offered regularly. Insects should themselves be provided with a nutritious diet for 1-3 days before being offered to your pets. Whole vertebrates such as minnows, shiners and pink mice represent the best means of meeting their high calcium requirements. Pink mice should be used less often than fishes (once each 7-14 days), and furred rodents are best avoided. A steady diet of goldfishes may lead to health problems.
Wild Water Dragons consume some vegetation, but captives often reject non-living foods. Adding live insects to a bowl of kale, dandelion, apples, peaches and other produce may encourage them to sample the salad.
Depending upon the type of food, Water Dragons can be fed daily, every-other-day or thrice weekly; young fare best when fed frequently. Food (other than vertebrates) should be powdered with a calcium supplement. Vitamin/mineral supplements should be used 2-3 times each week. While ingested substrate is usually passed, food is best offered in bowls to limit potential problems.
Mature males exhibit larger heads and jowls than females, and exceed them in length and weight. Breeders should be at least 2 years of age and 2 feet in length. Your pets may reproduce without temperature manipulation, but more consistent results will be had by subjecting them to 4-6 week period of cooler temperatures (72 F by night, 75-78 F, with a basking site of 83 F, by day) and a reduced day length of 10 hours.
Females housed in large enclosures may use a large plastic contained filled with 12-16 inches of moist sphagnum moss and sand. Otherwise, they may be removed to a large plastic garbage can or similar container when digging is observed. Clutches may contain 6-20+ eggs. The eggs can be incubated in a mix of 1 part vermiculite to 1 part water (by weight) at 84-86 F for 50-75 days. The hatchlings measure 6 inches in length (with tail).
Written by Frank Indiviglio
great temperment, BEAUTIFUL animals, cute personalities, friendliest reptiles, fantastic pets
expensive species, high humidity, large water pool, regular veterinary visits, plant type vines, mouth rot
toasty heat rock, Hairless pinky mice
More Fun Than a Cat
Ok, my Chinese water dragon is probably one of the coolest pets I have ever owned. Unlike my bearded dragon, this little guy is full of energy and really fun to spend time with. It may be easiest to compare and contrast this guy with the commonly known bearded dragon. While bearded dragons are simple, easy to take care of, almost impossible to kill, and sluggish-Chinese water dragons are spry, exciting, challenging, and really easy to get attached with. The only problem is they are more challenging than a simple bearded dragon or gecko, and require you to be more committed to taking care and maintaining them. (be prepared to change and clean a water bowl every day) If you are willing to put in the effort though I think you will be quite happy with your green little dinosaur..
From dlandes2 May 27 2015 8:57PM
Chinese Water Dragons Are Worthwhile
This is a beautiful lizard with a funny personality, and interesting habits. Not as personable as a green iguana, Chinese water dragons do tame easily, but generally do not prefer to be handled, and will only sit with an owner for a short time before attempting to scuttle away to do something else. Green water dragons require quite a bit of space, and do best with a 4 foot by 3 foot enclosure. A plastic cat pan or larger plastic bin can be used to create a water pool--these lizards love to swim, and they need water that they can submerge themselves in. This pool will serve as their swimming area, their bathing area (and they will indeed clean themselves with water, quite fun to watch), and their toilet. The latter habit means daily cleanings of the pool, but far less attention needs to be given to the rest of the cage. Water dragons virtually always choose to defecate and urinate in their water. Plan accordingly--a very easy-to-clean water pool will make daily care a snap.
These lizards will make full use of a 3-dimensional space. They love to climb, and to dig, as well as swim. Make sure climbing branches are sturdy, and very well secured. Secure lights and other fixtures very well. Like all diurnal lizards, they need UVB lighting. Green water dragons are omnivorous. Individual dietary preferences can vary quite a bit. When hatchlings, most will eat only insects, worms, and baby mice (dust all with calcium). As they grow older, introduce a salad mix suitable for iguanas, but perhaps with a bit more fruit. They have a particular fondness for brightly colored edible flowers, and berries. Don't give up if the dragon refuses vegetable foods at first--keep offering them. Adult dragons will ideally eat 40% vegetable matter, and 60% animal foods such as strips of fresh tilapia fish, nightcrawlers, young mice or baby rats, Zophobas worms, large crickets, silk worms, tomato hornworms, and other commercially available insect prey. (Never collect insects from the wild--they may be contaminated with pesticides, and transmit parasites. Avoid goldfish, or frozen/thawed fishes, which contain high levels of thiaminase). Some adult dragons eat very little vegetable matter, while others eat quite a lot--this is fine, just be sure that they receive proper vitamin and mineral supplements.
Water dragons, if properly cared for, tend to be quite hardy. If the environment has poor air circulation, they may be prone to tail rot--this should be removed and treated by a veterinarian. Lost tails will not regrow, so prompt treatment can save most of the tail if this condition is noticed. Water dragons should ideally not be kept in glass tanks. If they are, cover the lower half of the tank with paper. Water dragons do not understand glass, and will rub their faces on it attempting to walk through it. They will do this until they literally wear away all of the bones in their face! As with all reptiles, thermostat-controlled heating is essential to their health, and they should be kept at an ambient temperature of at least 80F with a 90F basking spot. Humidity should be 60 to 80%, but dragons can tolerate less humidity than this if they have a large water pool. Generally, air circulation and temperature is more important than overall humidity levels for this species.
Be sure that there are no sharp sticks or other objects pointing upward in the cage, and that basking branches are over padded surfaces. These lizards, when disturbed or startled, will leap from their branch straight into their water pool.
If you provide your dragon with a digging area, coconut fiber or plain untreated potting soil (with no vermiculite or perlite in it) are the best options, and should be changed regularly to prevent them from molding or going sour. Be forwarned that your dragon may make things muddy! Some folks choose to free-roam these lizards in a safe room with a water pool, kept at the right temperatures and light, or to use a closet or small room as their cage, and these are very viable options. As with most lizards, a male can be kept with a group of 2 or 3 females, but 2 males should not be housed together. They do well as a solitary pet.
Green water dragon males can reach a length of up to 3 feet, while females are a bit smaller. If you would like a beautiful lizard with a reasonably laid-back temperment and a wonderful sidelong glare, this is a good species for you--provided you have the space and can put in the work to maintain it.
From WingedWolfPsion May 3 2009 2:08PM
Not for beginners
My boyfriend got this lizard for me before I moved out to North Dakota as sort of a welcome home gift. This is a case of the importance of setting up an environment perfectly. This lizards habitat was off my a mere three degrees and that alone was enough to make him sick. This is not a pet for beginners. You really need to be careful with everything about these animals; stressors, temperature, substrate, distillation of water. It's crazy. To say the least this pet did not work out for me, I simply work too much to have that much to think about, but they certainly are cute creatures..
From lollie Aug 23 2015 10:26AM