There are lots of commercial products which help discourage pets from destructively chewing household objects, and from chewing, licking and scratching wounds and bandages.
One "do-it-yourself" strategy is to squirt orange, lemon or lime juice onto objects you don't want your animal to chew.
Another is to make your own citrus spray. One citrus spray recipe is to steep 2 cups of citrus peels in 4 cups of boiling water, and then let cool. This can then be sprayed onto furniture, shoes etc. that you don't want to see shredded.